Research Article

Management of root knot nematode in tomato through Tricoderma harzianum and moringa leaf extract

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To assess the impact of Moringa and T. harzianum on managing Root Knot Nematode (M. incognita) in tomato and to ascertain the impact of combining Moringa and T. harzianum on (M. incognita) management in tomato, an experiment was carried out at the Ambo Agricultural Research Center in a greenhouse. Combinations of Moringa oleifera and T. harzianum were examined on plant parameters and M. incognita parameters on tomato plants at various concentrations of moringa plant extracts at(100%, 50%, 25%, 10%) and (1*104, 1*106, 1*108, 1*1010), respectively. The results showed that were significant variations (P0.05) on number of galls per plant, the number of egg masses per plant, final nematode population density per pot, and the reproduction factor among the treatments in terms of nematode population. Combined application of aqueous moringa plant extracts at S (100 percent) and T. harzianum at 1*1010spore/ml resulst showed the highest plant height 67.5 cm. The outcome showed those pots treated with aqueous moringa plant extracts S and T. harzianum 1*1010Spore/ml had the lowest mean reproduction factor (1.79) and population density (3588) compared to control. Pots treated with aqueous moringa plant extracts S/10 (10%) and T.harzianum 1*104Spore/ml had the highest mean reproduction factor and nematodes population density compared to the control. As a result, T. harzianum and M. oleifera could be utilized to combat M. incognita in the field. The findings of this study showed that test plants can lower nematode populations below economic thresholds and are easily accessible to farmers at no cost. Additional research is required to find new classes of bio-pesticides derived from natural plants that can take the place of the synthetic chemicals now in use.


Population dynamics and management of tobacco caterpillar on cabbage

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The tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is the most common and damaging insect pest of cabbage worldwide. The cabbage head infestation started in the first week of October when the increase in cabbage heads started. The temperature notably improved during this time, while the rainfall declined. Spraying of voliam flexi 300SC @ 0.5 ml/l water and hand collection and destruction of infested fruits, larvae, pheromone trap and nappy trap (T3) used to be the cure that reduced the infestation of tobacco caterpillars and cabbage head infestation among the treatments (87.99% and 83.67%; 85.92% and 87.76%; 87.19% and 88.30% in the three hill districts over untreated control, respectively). It performed best (54.20, 42.15, and 50.25 tha-1 in three hill districts, respectively). Therefore, in the hilly region of Chattogram, Bangladesh, where the tobacco caterpillar occurs, spraying voliam flexi 300SC @ 0.5 ml/l water and hand collection and destruction of infested fruits, larvae, pheromone trap and nappy trap (T3) to be the most effective method for controlling this pest.


Comparative growth and yield analysis of intercropped African yam bean with maize

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The experiment consists of five local accessions of African Yam Bean viz; Gboko, Makurdi, Otukpo, Ukum and Ushongo accessions; inter-row spacing was 75 cm while intra-row spacing was 30 cm for African Yam Bean and 75 cm x 20 cm, 75 cm x 30 cm and 75 cm x 40 cm for maize. The experiment was laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three (3) replicates. A plot size of 4 m x 3.4 m (13.6 m2) was used; parameters measured include plant height, number of seeds per plant, number of leaves per plant, number of seeds per pod, grain yield, pod length, percentage seed weight, cob length and cob width. The experiment revealed that Otukpo accession of African Yam Bean intercropped with maize at 40 cm x 75 cm gave the highest grain yield (2.15 t/ha) and highest number of pods/plant (18.88). The Gboko accession of the African Yam Bean intercropped with maize at 40 cm x 75 cm gave the highest pod length (16.93 cm) and highest number of seeds/plant (14.45). Sole planting of the Otukpo accession of the African Yam Beam gave the highest percentage seed weight. Sole planting of the Oshongo accession of the African Yam Beam also produced the tallest plants (28.01 cm and 79.37 cm) consistently. Similarly, Oshongo accession when intercropped with maize at 40 cm x 75 cm gave the highest number of leaves (135 and 175) consistently. Percentage seed weight, cob length, cob weight and grain yield of maize was affected by intercropping as Markurdi accession of AYB intercropped with maize at 40 cm x 75 cm produced the highest grain yield (2.09 tha-1) of maize. Grain yield result of AYB shows that Otukpo accession intercropped with maize at 40 cm x 75 cm presents optimum potential for intercropping and highest performance among other accessions examined and therefore recommended for Makurdi farmers.


Pre-extension demonstration of blended fertilizer rate for maize crop production in Debub Ari Woreda, Southern Ethiopia

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The demonstration was conducted with aim to introduce new rate of blended fertilizer on maize crop and to enhance farmers’ awareness toward new practice. Sites and host farmers selection were undertaken purposively by researcher jointly with agricultural experts of the corresponding woreda. The demonstration was carried out on five farmers’ and one FTC’s field in each kebele, and two plots per farmer’s and FTC’s fields were used. Totally, 105 participants were participated on training and field day events. Farmers’ preference and cost data were collected using individual interview whereas sample of grain yield data was collected from each plot per farmers using weight measurement. Participatory on-field performance evaluation was conducted and feedbacks from participant farmers, agricultural experts and stakeholder were collected during field day. Farmer’s preference evaluation results showed that, field performance of maize crop under new rate (100 NPSB + 260 Urea) kgha-1of blended fertilizer was more preferred to the existing extension practices. Yield performance result revealed that, better grain yield of 4.78t ha-1 was obtained from maize crop under new practice with yield advantage of 12.47% compared to existing extension practice. So, use of new rate of blended fertilizer enhances maize productivities in the area. Therefore, conducting further scaling up and popularization of the practice is recommended in areas with similar soil type and agro-ecology.


Review Article

Soybean improvement through stress resistance and new plant breeding technologies

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Soybean belongs to the Leguminosae family having great nutritional value. It is considered to be a multipurpose crop used as food, feed, and fuel. Soybean as BNF (Biological Nitrogen Fixation) plant increases soil fertility through root nodule bacteria. Conventional breeding was used for improvement in crops in the past. But now scientists are working on soybean improvement through Genetic engineering (GE) to satisfy the global food demand. Genetic engineering methods i.e. gene silencing and transgenesis have reduced many risks and helped to increase soybean resilience. Recently, new plant breeding technologies (NBPTs) like transcription activator-like effector nucleases, zinc finger nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR Cas9) appeared that are the basis for genetic improvement in soybean. These NBPTs proved beneficial in the improvement of soybean through precision genome engineering and gene functional characterization. These NBPTs have also covered the ethical and public acceptance problems about GE and transgenesis in soybean. In this review, we have provided a comprehensive note about stress resistance, nutritional enhancement of transgenic soybean, GE, and NBPTs, and their prospects.



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